Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management. September 2018. 1-23
https://doi.org/10.6106/JCEPM.2018.8.3.001


ABSTRACT


MAIN

  • INTRODUCTION

  • METHODOLOGY

  • THE USE OF GREEN MATERIALS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

  •   Comprehensiveness

  •   Applicability and transferability

  •   Practicability

  • DISCUSSION

  • CONCLUSIONS

INTRODUCTION

The pace of actions towards sustainable development depends upon decisions considered by lots of actors in the engineering process: owners, professionals, designers, businesses, etc. An important decision is the sustainable selection of building materials to be utilized in building tasks [1].

Accomplishment of the 'Green Buildings' target is performed both at an early stage of the design process and on the working plan [2]. Materials selection is a sensitive and complex task depends on the tremendous quantity of building material options. Likewise, multiple factors tend to be considered by the architect when evaluating the various types of building materials. As a total result, these collections of parameters or factors often present tradeoffs that make your choice process even more technical [3].

The material selection process would integrate social, economic and environmental considerations at every stage in decision-making [1].

There is not an individual definite criterion of selection always, which means designers or architects have to take into account a large number of material selection factors. Therefore, the available information or data on building materials and product options must be constantly assessed to make well-considered and justifiable material choices [3].

Construction is one of the most significant end users of environmental resources and one of the most significant polluters of man-made and natural environments. Probably selecting sustainable building materials is the most challenging and trial facing the industry. Achieving the goal of green construction is one way that the construction industry can make an accound contribution towards guarding the environment. The operation and process of building construction consumes plenty of materials throughout its service life cycle, so the choice and use of sustainable building materials play an important role in the design and construction of green building [4].

Much like the design process, mindful awareness of contextual preconditions is essential to selecting appropriate building products or materials [3]. Buildings have a direct impact on the environment, ranging from the utilization of raw materials during construction, maintenance and renovation to the emission of harmful substances throughout the building's life cycle [4]. The building sector's environmental impact is enormous, as it accounts for the use of 40% of the natural resources extracted in the industrialized countries, the intake of 70% of the electricity and the 12% of potable water, and the creation of 45-65% of the waste disposed in landfills. Additionally, it is expected to increase, because of the development in global inhabitants from 6.5 billion in 2005 to roughly 9.0 billion in 2035. In this scenario, the mitigation of the environmentally friendly impact of properties is an initial issue [2].

The construction industry and the environment are associated inextricably. It had been inevitable that the industry has found itself at the center of concerns regarding environmental impact [4]. The earlier try to “establish comprehensive means of simultaneously assessing a wide selection of sustainability concerns in building materials” was the Building Research Establishment Environmental Examination Method (BREEAM). BREEAM known as the first commercially available & most widely used diagnostic method was proven in 1990 in Britain. Since then numerous tools have been launched across the world such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). BREEAM, LEEDS, and other existing methods for assessing building whose remit is basically restricted to an environmental security and resource efficiency agenda has limited energy for evaluating sociol and monetary factors as opposed to environmental sustainability. It should be noted that achieving the goal of sustainable building is not about restricting the quantity of construction. It is concerning how to pay more attention to how the design and selection of green building materials can complement the environment to boost living quality, end-user health and comfort [4]. In order to be considered truly ecological, assessment methods shall need to be recast under the umbrella of sustainability environmental, social and economic. Broadening the scope of discussion beyond environmental responsibility and embracing the wider agenda of sustainability are increasingly necessary requirements [1].

METHODOLOGY

Sustainable development is the most vibrant and powerful force to impact the building design and construction field in more than a decade. The type of research that will be used in this study is qualitative and quantitative research. Sustainability of building materials depends on the local context. Due to the lack of available data in developing countries and the complexity of the life cycle assessment methodology, other relevant instruments can be applied on the analysis of sustainability, such as the international environmental product declaration system and certification schemes and labels.

Qualitative search has been done with an understanding of sustainable building using eco-efficient construction materials. Therefore, the literature search has been done based on keywords, and database, allowing for the identification of related journal articles across several research disciplines and sources.

Table I shows a list of keywords and database to this article:

TABLE I. LITERATURE SEARCH DESIGN

Keywords- Construction materials
- Durability
- Sustainability
- Recycled materials
- Energy consumption
- Green concrete
- Low carbon building
- Eco-Efficient Materials
DatabaseElsevier
onlinelibrary. wiley
springer
Scholar. Google
Scopus
Ebscohost
Engineering village

THE USE OF GREEN MATERIALS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Generally, construction is not an environmentally friendly process and it includes major effects on the depletion of natural resources and on the emissions of Green House Gas (GHG) consequently of fossil gas combustion [4].

The selection of ecological building materials should not only give attention to the performance requirements but also attention requires for materials, which may have the lowest GHG emissions.

The construction, fit-out, procedure and ultimate demolition of properties are significant factors of real human impact on the environment both directly (through materials and energy consumption and the consequent pollution and waste products) and indirectly (through the pressures on often inefficient facilities). In response to these effects, there is growing consensus among organizations focused on environmental performance targets that appropriate strategies and actions are needed to make construction activities more sustainable. Careful collection of ecological building materials has been discovered as the easiest way for designers to start incorporating sustainable ideas in building projects. Selecting building materials are undoubtedly a multi-criteria decision problem [5]. The following set of guidelines has been developed to aid the decision of standards to assess your options under consideration [1]:

Comprehensiveness

The conditions chosen should cover the four types of economic, environmental and social, to be able to ensure that the account is being considered for improvement towards the sustainability objective.

Applicability and transferability

The factors or variables chosen will be applicable across the range of options under consideration as well as transferable across regions irrespective of the geographical setting of the regions. This is needed to ensure the comparability and compatibility of the options regardless of the local conditions.

Practicability

The set of factors/variables selected will be used to form a practicable tool or system to enable potential users to reach a better solution of making effective decisions in selecting appropriate materials in less time, with fewer resources and errors. The choice of factors or variables is to influence the outcome of the decision being made, as well the method of comparison or aggregation is chosen.

Before years, a great effort was addressed toward the reduced amount of the energy required during the procedure period of the building (energy required for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, hot water, operating devices, etc.) and the adoption of more efficient technical solutions and materials led to an improvement in the fullness of energy performance of structures during their service life. The modern impulse to the exploitation of alternative energy sources led to a rapid development of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) idea, implying a zero annual balance between your energy used for the building's procedure and the energy gained from renewable sources, such as in 'solar homes [2].

Sustainable building concerns judgment and behavior to help ensure long-term environmental, social and financial growth in the construction. In buildings, it involves the efficient allocation of resources, minimize energy consumption, low embodied energy intensity in building materials, recycling and reuse, and other mechanisms to attain effective and effective brief- and long-term use of natural resources [4].

Recent studies now argue that the utilization of local and recycled building materials offers the advantage of reducing CO2 emissions, producing healthier building, while conditioning the local current economic climate. With the evolution of the low-carbon building motion, research and development are progressively more devoting considerable amount of resources to intentionally promote and prioritize the utilization of local and recycled building materials in mainstream practice [3].

The improvement in environmentally friendly performance of properties will indeed encourage higher environmental responsibility and place a higher value on the welfare of future decades [4]. Some of the indexes for using sustainable materials in construction have been reviewed. This forum explores in below:

A. Reuse of waste materials in its original forms.

B. Environmental impact of selecting green materials.

C. The Durability of materials in sustainable construction.

D. Interaction between local economy and selecting local -green materials.

E. Influence of energy consumption in selecting materials.

F. Choosing materials and components with lower carbon emission and prevalence the low carbon building technology.

G. Using sustainable components for providing green concrete as a popular material in construction.

H. Use of in-site materials and recycled materials as a raw material for products

Reuse of a waste material in its original form

Considering the recent industrial development's construction, and world population growth and meanwhile demolition of residential & industrial buildings has imposed many undesirable expenditures to every society worldwide, which, according to Statistics almost 50% of consumable resources on earth are dedicated to this field. Energy consumption for construction and encountering a huge amount of structural waste has brought lots of environmental problems to most countries worldwide. Lack of raw material for construction and the increasing rate of environmental problems have drawn the attention of most governments to find a solution regarding sustainable development in this field.

Therefore, applying recyclable material or reusable ones in the process of building, renewal and returning into a nature cycle with an environmental adaptability and saving energy consumption is one of the many possible ways to cross this critical era successfully.

Every building material comes with an environmental cost of some sort. However, some principles can help guide your choice of ecological structure and materials systems. Careful analysis and collection of materials and the way they can be combined can yield significant improvements in the comfort and cost effectiveness of your house, and help reduce its life cycle environmental impact. The first step in any way sustainable materials is to lessen the demand for new materials. Instead of knocking down and rebuilding a home, it's worth trying where possible to refurbish or at least reuse materials from the existing home. Consider building smaller, well-designed, minimizing houses wastage by using prefabricated or modular elements and preventing unneeded surface finishes and linings. During construction and design, incorporate approaches that can make it simpler to adapt, reuse and finally dismantle the building. By choosing durable, zero-maintenance materials, you can minimize the need for new materials and finishes within the building's lifetime. The next thing is to choose materials with low environmental impact put simply, a 'sustainable' material is one that will not impact negatively on non-renewable resources, the environment or real human health. Most products have a net-negative impact on the environment.

When looking at the environmental impact of any material or product. It is critical to decrease the negative influences of any materials you select, in another word, we should consider all phases of the life pattern - the upstream level (materials extraction and produce), the in-use or operational stage, and the downstream level (disposal or reuse).

Table II has indicated some of the research sources about reuse of waste material:

TABLE II. PUBLISHED RESEARCH RELATED TO REUSE OF WASTE MATERIAL

Ref.Title of ArticleYearResult
6Sustainable Use of Recycled Materials I
n Building Construction
2002model to determine the
degree of sustainability
7Material efficiency: A white paper2010questions about the implementation
of material efficiency
8Development of sustainable construction material
using industrial and agricultural solid waste: A review of waste-create bricks
2011Enhance performance in terms of achieved lighter
density, lower thermal conductivity and higher compressive strength of the various
waste create brick (WCB)
9Fired clay bricks manufactured
by adding wastes as sustainable

construction material -A review
2014Depending on which standard is followed,
almost all additives provide results in this paper
the maximum allowed values.
10Reuse of building materials2015method of constructing objects neglecting their lifetime and the possibility of cautious deconstruction
11Durability against wetting-drying cycles
of sustainable Lightweight
2015fly ash improves flow ability of LCC mixture
(before hardening) and durability of LCC material
12Development of sustainable geo-polymer
mortar using industrial
2016palm-oil-fuel-ash (POFA)- fly-ash (FA)- blast-furnace-slag (BFS)
and manufactured (M-sand) ,viable alternative to the conventional materials

Environmental impact of selecting green materials

The construction process can have a significant impact on environmental resources. Environmentally mindful development practices can markedly reduce site disturbance, the amount of waste sent to landfills, and the use of natural resources during building. Additionally, it may minimize the chance of adverse indoor quality of air in the finished building. In addition to yielding environmental benefits, many of these activities can lower project costs. Selecting environmentally preferable building materials is one way to improve a building's environmental performance. To be practical, however, environmental performance must be well balanced against financial performance. Even the most environmentally conscious building custom made or building materials maker will ultimately want to ponder environmental benefits against economic costs. They would like to identify building materials that improve environmental performance with little or no increase in cost.

Table III introduces research source about environmental impact on green material:

TABLE III. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON GREEN MATERIALS

Ref.Title of ArticleYearResult
13Sustainable Building Material for Green
Building Construction Conservation and refurbishing
2012How sustainable building material can contribute to
lessen the impact of environmental degradation

Durability of materials in sustainable construction.

Durability is the capability to last a long time without significant deterioration. A durable material helps the environment by conserving resources and lowering wastes and environmentally friendly impacts of repair and replacement unit. The development of alternative building materials depletes natural resources and can produce water and air pollution.

Producing materials with high durability prevents the repeated production costs so that in case of using the highly durable materials, the expenses of demolition, transport, recycle and reuse would be excluded. The related cost and energy can be spent in other parts of the construction. One method for recognizing the highly durable materials is testing and experimenting them, which there exists the specified codes and specifications in this regard.

Durability on materials in sustainable buildings are shown in table IV.

TABLE IV. DURABILITY OF MATERIALS IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION

Ref.Title of ArticleYearResult
14life cycle sustainability and the transcendent
quality of building materials
2007Considers the possibility of
creating durable works with ephemeral materials.
15Optimization of Cementitious Material Content for
Sustainable Concrete Mixtures
2012A method to optimize the cement and fly ash contents in concrete on the
basis of the hardened concrete properties testing and environmental effects.
16Ultrahigh Performance Concrete: A Potential Material for Sustainable
Marine Construction in View of the Service Life
2013Constructed with UHPC have much longer service life than that of normal
concrete (NC) and high performance concrete (HPC)
17Achieving Sustainable Building Maintenance through
Optimizing Life-Cycle Carbon, Cost, and Labor:
Case in Hong Kong concrete subjected to elevated temperatures
2014Suggest sensitivity analysis or
fuzzy set theory should be incorporated.
18Life cycle assessment (LCA) of
sustainable building materials : an overview
2014Sets out to present an overview of sustainable
building materials and their impacts on the environment
19A study of the durability of recycled green building materials
in lightweight aggregate concrete artificial reef concrete
containing high volume of ultrafine palm oil fuel ash
2015Waste tire powder and waste liquid crystal display (LCD)
glass sand use as recycled materials

Interaction between local economy and selecting local- green materials.

Understanding what a green material is, depends upon understanding relationships between nature and the Economy. It is an extremely complicated subject and always changing. What is considered a green material is also constantly changing. It’s important to look closely at every individual product and material, certainly, but it is more efficient to look first at the building system. This is particularly clear whenever we see systems now being made to allow buildings to be easily dismantled rather than demolished. The context in which a material can be used is crucial. A conventional petrochemical-based building material might be used in innovations and structures that are quite ecological in overall impact. Similarly, a “green” material might be deployed or installed in destructive techniques completely negate their positive characteristics.

When salvaged and used again extremely standard materials might become a green material, it is a question of relationships that are multi-dimensional and constantly shifting.

That is an important question, and cannot be separated from the relevant question of how exactly we can reduce the use of materials. In a sense, they may be two articulations of the same dilemma: how to comprehend, revalue and reorganize flows throughout the market.

A green material is one which simultaneously does the most with the least, matches most within ecosystem techniques harmoniously, helps eliminate the use of other energy and materials, and contributes to the attainment of your service-based overall economy.

Due to the building industry's significant impact on the national overall economy, even humble changes that promote resource efficiency in building and businesses can make major contributions to economic wealth and environmental improvement.

Table V consist of research sources related interaction between local economy and local green materials:

TABLE V. RESEARCH SOURCES LOCAL ECONOMY AND LOCAL GREEN MATERIAL.

Ref.Title of ArticleYearResult
20Selecting Cost-Effective Green Building Products:
Bees Approach
1999Environmental and economic performance are combined into an
overall performance measure using the ASTM standard for multi attribute decision analysis
21Sustainable construction: some economic challenges2000Sustainable development
across the national economy
22A checklist for assessing sustainability
performance of construction projects
2007Provides a tool that enable all parties to assess
the sustainability performance of the project
23Optimization model for the selection
of materials using a LEED-based

green building rating system in Colombia
2009mixed integer optimization model that incorporates design and budget constraints
24Architects' considerations
while selecting materials
2011Basic material selection
considerations for an architectural design project
25Developed Sustainable Scoring System
for Structural Materials Evaluation
2012Sustainable development embraces issues in three dimensions:
environmental, social, and economic
26Economic and Environmental Evaluation Model for Selecting the Optimum
Design of Green Roof Systems in Elementary Schools
2012develop an optimal-scenario selection model that considers both the
economic and the environmental effect in applying Green-roof systems to educational facilities
27Evaluating Sustainable Building-Maintenance Projects:
Balancing Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts in the Case of Hong Kong
2015Enhance the sustainability performance of the global building construction
sector in overcoming the universal barriers
28Selecting Globally Sustainable Materials: A Case Study
Using Choosing by Advantages
2016Practical advice for decision makers by demonstrating the application
of a method, called choosing by advantages (CBA)
29Sustainability Actions during
the Construction Phase
2016Construction Phase Sustainability Actions

Influence of energy consumption in selecting materials

Energy efficiency is one of the key objectives of green buildings [30]. There are numerous motivations to boost energy efficiency. Lowering energy use reduces energy costs. Reducing energy use is also seen as a solution to the problem of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Buildings are constructed with a variety of building materials and each material consumes energy throughout its stages of manufacture, deconstruction, and use. There are several studies in the field of raw material extraction, transport, manufacture, assembly, installation as well as its disassembly, deconstruction and decomposition. The energy consumed in production is called the 'embodied energy' of the material and is the concern of energy consumption and carbon emissions on the other hand 'Functioning energy' means the expended in preserving the inside environment through procedures such as heating and cooling, light and operating gadgets [31].

Decreasing the vitality consumption of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is now remarkably significant anticipated to increasing cost of fossil fuels and environmental concerns [32]. According to the International Energy Agency, upgraded energy efficiency in structures, industrial functions and travel could reduce the world's energy needs in 2050 by one third, and help control global emissions of greenhouse gases.

Table VI has introduced research resources about influence of energy consumption in materials:

TABLE VI. RESEARCH RELATED TO ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN MATERIALS

Ref.Title of ArticleYearResult
33A review on energy conservation in building applications
with thermal storage by latent heat using phase change materials
2004Thermal energy storage systems incorporating phase change
materials for use in building applications.
34Development and performance evaluation of naturaltermal
insulation materials composed of renewable resources
2011develop a new insulating material from renewable resources with
comparable building physics and mechanical properties
35Renewable materials to reduce building heat loss:
Characterization of date palm wood
2011use palm wood material in
the manufacture of thermal insulation
36Life cycle assessment of building materials: Comparative analysis
of energy and environmental impacts and evaluation of the eco-efficiency
improvement potential
2011the impact of construction products can be significantly
reduced by promoting the use of the best techniques
available and eco-innovation in production plants
37Affordable construction towards sustainable buildings:
review on embodied energy in building materials
2013embodied energy and carbon
38A multidisciplinary approach to sustainable building material
selection: A case study in a Finnish context
2014influence of building material choice on the embodied
environmental impacts, environmental benefits and
material cost of a building
39Energy Efficient Materials
for Sustainable Building
2014energy efficient materials such as solar cells with super capacitors
and efficient lighting materials in buildings
40Development of green building standard in china2014Some suggestions are proposed for green building standards
41Blue Star: The proposed energy efficient tall building in Chicago

and vertical city strategies
2015optimize the energy and
resource efficiency design
42Introduction of the standard for energy efficient
building evaluation
2015status of energy efficient building
evaluation standards in China
43Lightweight plasters
containing plastic waste for sustainable
and energy-efficient building
2015reduction of energy consumption in construction
44Insulation materials for commercial buildings in North
America: An assessment of lifetime energy and environmental
2015assessments of the lifetime environmental impacts of
selected insulation materials for commercial buildings in North America
45Sustainable target value design: integrating life cycle assessment
and target value design to improve building
energy and environmental performance
2015combines life cycle assessment (LCA) and target value design
(TVD) to rapidly produce more sustainable building designs
46Multi objective optimization of mix proportion for a sustainable
construction material
2015mix proportion for designing
the sustainable material
47Energy Efficient Sustainable
Building Materials: An Overview
2015understand the role of sustainable building materials
and use them intelligently
48Advanced energy storage materials for building
applications and their thermal performance
characterization: A review
2016the building incorporated phase change materials has ability to
reduce energy usage and improve building comfort
49Building Information Modelling for analysis of energy efficient
industrial buildings - A case study
2016the potentials and deficits of the modeling, analysis and
optimization of energy efficient industrial buildings using BIM
50Environmental performance of energy systems of residential
buildings: Toward sustainable communities
2016the analysis of the production, disposal and transportation of the materials used for the
manufacturing processes of the building's energy systems
51In-use office building energy characterization through basic
monitoring and modelling
2016proposing some modifications on the existing ISO 9869 method
and co-heating method to make them usable with basic energy monitoring data of in-use
buildings and obtain their main thermal characteristics
52Simulating the Inter-Building Effect on energy consumption
from embedding phase change materials in building envelopes
2016embedded building envelopes could potentially mitigate
negative thermal-energy impacts
53System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment
within a district heated region
2016the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family
buildings has on the district heating and the electricity
production
54User satisfaction and well-being in energy efficient office
buildings: Evidence from cutting-edge projects in Austria
2016energy use and well-being in
energy efficient office buildings

Choosing materials and components with lower carbon emission and prevalence the low carbon building technology

Low-carbon buildings (LCB) are structures which are constructed with GHG lowering specifically. So by definition, a LCB is a building which emits less GHG than a regular building. The developed professional country should use the production technology that reduces the emission of CO2, to be able to protect the environment while maintaining the financial growth. The CO2 and ozone in the atmosphere can absorb the glowing heat from sunlight and avoiding its escape from the earth, therefore empowering the atmosphere of the natural greenhouse result. If the density of greenhouse gases such as CO2 rises, the absorbed radiant heat shall increase and heat given out by the planet earth will be reduced, thus resulting in global warming. Global warming shall melt the glacier, improve the sea level, reduce the continental area, set up harbors and ruin the marshland and river plain, because of this, getting great unwanted effects to the Economic of coastland area. Moreover, global warming shall shift the climate zone to high latitude, change the ecosystem using the increase and area infectious diseases and the consumption of ozonosphere. The average temperature of the earth's surface in China has increased by 1.1 degrees of centimeter over the last 100 years. Going back 30 years, the sea level has increased by 90mm typically. The low-carbon technology has relationships with electricity sector, travel sector, structure sector, chemistry industry and a great many other new systems. From the real point of low-carbon building technology, it ought to be taken into consideration of choosing materials and components with lower carbon emission during the designing and development process [55].

Table VII represents some of research sources about materials with low carbon emission:

TABLE VII. RESEARCH SOURCES ON MATERIALS WITH LOWER CARBON EMISSION

Ref.Title of ArticleYearResult
56Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Several Green
and Non-Green Building Materials A Comparison
2005measured and compared the volatile organic compound VOC emissions from decking wood
pressure treated decking wood ceramic floor tile
55Discussion on low-carbon economy and low-carbon
building technology
2009introduced low-carbon economy
and low-carbon technology
57Regulations and robust low-carbon buildings2009Naturally ventilated
58Performance-based low carbon building
technology screening
2012low carbon technology screening under different
building function and climate conditions
59A review of benchmarking in carbon labelling schemes for
building materials
2015consumer-purchasing habits to low-carbon alternatives
60An investigation on life-cycle energy consumption and carbon
emissions of building space heating and cooling system
2015System operation stage is the key stage of life cycle energy
consumption and carbon emissions
61Comparing carbon emissions of precast and cast-in-situ
construction methods - A case study of high-rise private building
2015recommended to adopt precast concrete in building construction
62Design strategies for low embodied carbon and low embodied
energy buildings: principles and examples
2015presents five examples of environmental optimizations of
construction elements, structures and whole buildings
63Low carbon buildings: Sensitivity of thermal properties of opaque
envelope construction and glazing
2015investigated the sensitivity of building envelope construction
comprising multi-layered wall construction
64Methodological challenges and developments in LCA of low energy buildings: Application to
biogenic carbon and global warming assessment
2015life cycle assessment results for low energy buildings
65The indispensability of good operation & maintenance (O&M)
manuals in the operation and maintenance of low carbon buildings
2015need for a change in the way O&M manuals are being
prepared particularly for LCBs
66What leads to low-carbon buildings ?A china study2015low carbon building developments
67A detailed analysis of the embodied energy and carbon
emissions of steel-construction residential buildings in China
2016the embodied energy consumption of steel members,
concrete and cement account for more than 60% of the total energy
consumption of all building components
68A novel roof type heat recovery panel for low-carbon buildings:
An experimental investigation
2016results of a novel heat recovery system
developed for low-carbon buildings
69Assessing the impacts of preferential procurement on
low-carbon
2016How bid discounts change owners' procurement costs and
the magnitudes of emission mitigation.
70Challenges for energy and carbon modelling of high-rise buildings:
The case of public housing in Hong Kong
2016challenges for energy and carbon modelling of high-rise buildings
71The effect of carbon reduction regulations on contractors'
awareness and behaviours in China's building sector
2016carbon reduction regulations positively correlate with carbon
reduction awareness and behaviours
72Towards a computer based framework to
support the low carbon building design process
2016integrate the range of activities, tools and information that
constitute the low carbon building design process

Using green components for providing green concrete as a popular material in construction

Concrete is one of the most trusted building materials. CO2 emitted from concrete creation is one of the man-made source of CO2 in the atmosphere; consequentially, its environmental burden is considerable in conditions of environmental emissions. Therefore, investigations and explorations on the development of greening technology for concrete vigorously have been done by researchers [73].

Cement, which is the concrete constituent in charge of the vast amount of energy use and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions has been partly replaced by Supplementary Cementations Materials (SCMs) in such “green” mixes. Also, there were numerous studies that looked into the alternative of aggregates in cement by solid spindle, for example by Thomas et al. (2014) who investigated the suitability of misuse tires in cement as an incomplete substitution of natural fine sand [74]. Extensive research works have been carried out to utilize farming waste materials such as those from palm oil, coconut, sugarcane as well as the paddy industry and these studies signify potential of utilizing such materials in concrete. Recently, there is an emerging trend in utilizing alternative farming spend for concrete, such as those from agriculture (bamboo, banana, corn, whole wheat, sisal, lawn etc.) (Pappu et al., 2007; Karade, 2010) as well as aquaculture farming, such as oyster, cockle, clam and periwinkle (Prusty and Patro, 2015). Commonly, researchers have applied agricultural farming residues as partial cement replacement material in concrete [75].

Table VIII shows a list of research related to sustainable components for providing green concrete:

TABLE VIII. RESEARCH SOURCES ON GREEN CONCRETE WITH GREEN COMPONENTS

Ref.Title of ArticleYearResult
74A life-cycle approach to environmental, mechanical, and
durability properties of "green" concrete mixes with rice husk ash
2016Fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA) a highly-reactive pozzolanic material
75Green concrete partially comprised of farming waste
residues: a review
2016Usage of farming waste materials in different form in concrete, such
as partial cement and aggregate replacement
76Engineering and transport properties of high-strength
green concrete
2012The engineering and transport properties of high-strength green
concrete (HSGC) containing up to 60% of ultrafine palm oil fuel ash
77Green building materials evaluation and empirical research
based on the regional endowment Materials: A Comparison waste materials
concrete subjected to elevated temperatures
2012Introduces the data envelope method to solve the evaluation of
green building materials
78
The use of stabilised Spanish clay soil for sustainable construction
materials 2012 Engineering Geology
2012Producing an economical, ecological and sustainable
building material
79Investigating the properties of lightweight concrete
containing high
2013Recycled green building materials can increase the slump of
lightweight concrete
80Green recycled aggregate concrete2013Concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate, low cement
content and high content of different mineral supplements
81Investigating the properties of lightweight concrete containing
high contents of recycled green building materials
2013Influence of high contents of recycled aggregate and recycled
pozzolanic admixtures on the properties of the concrete.
82Environmental assessment of green concrete containing natural
zeolite on the global warming index in marine environments
2014Environmental impact of concrete containing zeolite and conventional
one on the global warming
83Nano-mechanical behavior of a green ultra-high
performance concrete
2014Most fly ash and about half of cement remain un reacted after
curing. Theses un reacted particles show hight mechanical behavior
84Static properties and impact resistance of a green Ultra-High
Performance Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPHFRC): Experiments
2014Static properties and impact resistance of a ""green"" Ultra-High
Performance Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete
85The advantage of natural polymer modified mortar with seaweed:
green construction material innovation for
sustainable concrete
2014That natural polymer modified mortar with seaweed powder
86Toward green concrete for better sustainable environment contents
of recycled green building material
2014Substituting relatively high percentage of cement by fly ash
(upto 100%), the use of other natural pozzolans
87A study of the durability of recycled green building materials
in lightweight aggregate concrete
2015waste tire powder and waste liquid crystal display (LCD) glass sand are
used as recycled materials
88Blue is the new green - Ecological enhancement of concrete based
coastal and marine infrastructure
2015the ability of design substrate alterations to facilitate competition
for space between local and invasive species on Concrete based coastal and marine
infrastructure (CMI)
89Designing more sustainable and greener self-compacting concrete2015Mixing proportion parameters of self-compacting concrete (SCC)
and its environmental impact and thus developing more greener SCC.
90Investigating the properties of lightweight concrete containing high2015The removal of contaminant from recycled aggregates is a more
91Usage of green concrete technology in civil engineering
contents of recycled green building materials
2015New ecological geopolymer binders
92Influence of recycled coarse aggregates on normal
and high performance
2016Recycled concrete aggregates
93On the use of blast furnace slag and steel slag in the
preparation of green
2016The density of developed green artificial reef concrete(GARC) is
2765.5 kg/m3 higher than normal concrete with a typical density of 2400 kg/m3.
94Palm oil fuel ash as potential green micro-filler
in polymer concrete
2016The potential of utilizing an agricultural waste; palm oil fuel ash (POFA) as
micro-filler in polymer concrete
95Retrofitting of damaged reinforced concrete
beams with a new green
2016Green-USM-Reinforced Concrete
96Developing Sustainable High Strength2016Development of high strength concrete by using both local
materials and recycled concrete aggregate
97Looking for Oil free Building Materials Clay Pipes to Replace
Polymer Pipes 2016 Procedia Technology
2016Search for alternative oil-free building materials

Use of in-site materials and recycled materials as a raw material for products

With the progression of the low-carbon building movement, research and development are significantly devoting. The significant amount of resources to intentionally promote and prioritize the use of local and recycled building materials in mainstream practice. Recent studies now claim that the use of local and recycled building materials supplies the advantage of minimizing CO2 emissions, producing healthier buildings, while also building up the neighborhood market [3].

This part focuses on two aspects of ecological construction building materials; local use of constituent materials and the use of recycled materials. Building materials dispatch long ranges and internationally oftentimes usually, raise the cost of the material. Therefore by focus on local materials, construction projects can become more affordable to wide selection of construction applications. Using local products decreases emissions associated with long shipping routes drastically. Replacing new materials used in production with recycled materials drastically increases the sustainable impact of the material. By using discarded waste material in new construction, the strain for new and virgin materials is alleviated while also lessening the demand for landfill space [96].

Some studies about this matter have been introduced in table IX:

TABLE IX. PUBLISHED ARTICLES RELATED TO USE OF IN-SITE AND RECYCLED MAT

Ref.Title of ArticleYearResult
98Recycled construction and demolition materials in permeable
pavement systems: geotechnical and hydraulic characteristic
2014Geotextile layer increases pollutant removal efficiency of the
construction and demolition (C&D)materials
99Environmental life cycle assessment of lightweight
concrete to support recycled materials selection for sustainable design
2016Convert ornamental stone
and ceramic
wastes into raw resources for producing new materials
100Comparative environmental evaluation of aggregate
production from recycled waste materials and virgin sources by LCA
2016Recycled aggregates production from construction and demolition
C&D waste and waste glass and saving of 58% non-renewable energy consumption

DISCUSSION

Nowadays, in order to produce building materials, due to the low price of raw materials, there is no tendency to use environment-friendly materials. The least damaging in some societies which unsystematically applying and exploiting natural resources are irrecoverable damages the environment, whose effects would remain for so many years. Understanding this fact that damage to the environment would cause hazards in daily and future life and in order to solve this issue, some decisions must be made to prevent progress continuance. In this respect, using and producing green materials through persuasive and mandatory codification by stakeholder organizations in building area should be increased.

However, before performing any action in this respect, it is necessary to make culture, provide production base, and train involved agents and citizens for using green materials in construction. For this purpose, at first the environmental advantages and necessity of energy conservation as the most important reasons for using green materials must be explained for societies and inform them on protecting resources and healthy life situations for future generations. In this respect, we could proceed to creat an essential base to produce green materials by codifying tax laws, investment incentives, funding and lending and also codifying environmental regulations, so that could promote the community awareness on this respect by paying more attention to education and awareness. Therefore, the necessary culture, making could be taking place either by organizing meetings and conferences in construction area or using specialized press and newspapers and cooperation of mass media such as radio and television. In the following classification (Fig 1) there is some category as a guideline for selecting sustainable materials in construction building. This article introduces several of them and there are many subjects for future research. One of the most considerable issues on this topic would be the amount of water consumption in the production and utilization of material in constructing buildings.

CONCLUSIONS

Base on a systematic review of journal publications on green material, this research introduces the eco-efficient materials and their benefits to our environment. Then explored potentials for achieving sustainable construction by using eco-efficient materials. In this manner, eight categories for discussing about using and selecting green materials for construction have been provided and their benefits highlighted. There are many different reported benefits for using green materials in construction, one of these benefits is the potential for reducing G.H.G emission to be able to protect the environment and reduce global warming. In order to solve real world problems and improve environmental protection while maintaining the financial growth, the review also highlights using of local and recycled materials as a raw material for products. This study tries to consider a need for all stakeholder organizations' participation in this area by planning and changing the attitude of replacing the usage of raw productive materials with green materials in the construction industry. Life cycle assessment items for each step as above can be applied to the material and resource items in green building, and the database establishment is required to build the database and set up reference values on a variety of building materials for the future life cycle assessment. Therefore, people participation, structure modification and necessity of applying green materials could be effective actions in reach stability in construction building.

http://static.apub.kr/journalsite/sites/jcepm/2018-008-03/N042080301/images/jcepm_08_03_01_F1.jpg
FIGURE I.

GUIDE LINE FOR SELECTING SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS IN CONSTRUCTION

*Topic contents in this article

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